Some people use the terms gamification and game-based learning interchangeably. There are, however, significant differences between the two concepts.
Here is an article comparing the two terms.
Here are a few definitions of game-based learning by different researchers.
“…game-based learning is a form of experiential engagement in which people learn by trial and error, by role-playing and by treating a certain topic not as ‘content’ but as a set of rules, or a system of choices and consequences.” (Perrotta et al. 2013)
“Definitions of game-based learning mostly emphasize that it is a type of gameplay with defined learning outcomes (Shaffer, Halverson, Squire, & Gee, 2005). Usually, it is assumed that the game is a digital game, but this is not always the case. “(Plass et al. 2015)
“Game-based learning (GBL) describes an environment where game content and gameplay enhance knowledge and skills acquisition, and where game activities involve problem-solving spaces and challenges that provide players/learners with a sense of achievement.” (Qian and Clark, 2016)
“Game-based learning is not just creating games for students to play, it is designing learning activities that can incrementally introduce concepts, and guide users towards an end goal.” (Pho and Dinscore, 2015)